A design of evaluation method for SaaS in cloud computing, IT cost saving has always been a major issue within organizations. Reportshows that in most organizations, more than 75% of the annual IT budget is spent on the cost for operating and managing applications(Oracle, 2009). However, it is vague to identify whether or not those applications are really deriving business values to the organization. This leads to the IT application redundancy issue where similar IT applications produce similar functionalities in business. One way to disentangle this issue is through application rationalization. Gartner research shows that CIOs are finding an average of 20% immediate cost savings within 12 months of implementation along with improved IT value positioning through the combination of application rationalizationeffort(Oracle, 2009). Software as aService (SaaS), one of the cloud computing service models, is one of the potential options for adding to the cost saving initiative, when the rationalizedapplications are migrated to the cloud. SaaS is delivered over the internet without consumers needing to physically install the software in their infrastructure. It has been estimated that the market for SaaS is growing at 50% per year (Choudhary, 2007). There are 70% of the companies are currently using cloud based services and plans to adopt more SaaS services by moving additional application to the cloud where IT cost saving as the key motivation (Mimecast, 2010).The savings are realizedthrough the omission of any upfront investment in software license and infrastructure costs as the charges are incurred on a pay per usage basis. In addition, SaaS has shorter implementation time of SaaS and lower failure risk compared to the conventional enterprise software implementation. However, despite the cost benefits which are attractive for SaaS consumers, there are still concerns on deploying SaaS. These concerns are meeting technical requirements, security, ease of integration and functionality(Gartner, 2009).This research aims to design a decision making methodology for adopting SaaS. The methodology first assesses the existing IT applications, follows by analyzingthe impact of SaaS implementation to the overall IT application landscape of the organizationby establishing the SaaS assessment which involves risk analysis prior to adoption. This contribution of this research is in developing a mechanism for SaaS implementation that aligns with the business and ITstrategy of an organizationwhere IT cost saving as a core objective. The paper isstructured as follows: Section 2discusses the related work in IT applications rationalizationand risk analysis prior to SaaS implementation.Section 3 justifies the research design. Section 4demonstratesthe evaluation method with its set of techniques in practice through a local council in the UK. Section 5 discusses the critical evaluation of the proposed methods and section 6 draws a conclusion for this research.
The impacts of network competence, knowledge sharing on service innovation performance: Moderating role of relationship quality, In the 21st century, the rapid development of global services and the contemporary service-oriented economy has become an irresistible trend of the times; the “service economy” and the era of innovation-based “knowledge economy” has set in; the creation, spread and application of knowledge has become the main driving force to promote the progress of the times. The scale, complexity and interdependence of today’s service systems have been driven to an unprecedented level, due to globalization, demographic changes and technology developments. The rising significance of service and the accelerated rate of change mean that service innovation (SI) is now a major challenge to practitioners in business and government as well as to academics in education and research. A better understanding of service systems is required. Nowadays, SI represents an interesting area of investigation (Maglio & Spohrer, 2008). Investigating in greater detail of the antecedents of New Service Development (NSD) and Service Innovation Performance (SIP) is a research orientation that deserves attention (Menor, Tatikonda& Sampson, 2002).There are all kinds of antecedents of innovation success, such as culture, strategy, characteristics, people, structure, resources, networking (Jong, Dolfsma, Bruins& Meijaard, 2002). Despite the growing body of service-related scholarly research, the literature from marketing (Hauser, Gerard, &Abbie, 2006), operations (Menoret al., 2002), management (Bowen &Ford, 2002), and innovation (Drejer, 2004) continues to call for research to improve our comprehensive understanding of SI. Most previous studies focus on manufactory industry, with little attention paid to service industry. Even in operation management, most of the studies focus on tangible “goods”, which is different from services with particular characteristics (heterogeneity, inseparability, perishability) (Jaw, Lo& Lin, 2010). Furthermore, previous empirical investigations of innovation are based on narrow conceptual frameworks that may not fully capture the complexities of service innovation (Baker&James, 2007). Empirical findings in the innovation literature are limited and inconclusive regarding SI antecedents. Scholars used different theoretical perspectives, such as the Resource-Based View and Transaction Cost theory to derive theoretical rationales for strategic alliance for service innovation. Today, social network perspectives dominate research on interfirm relationships (e.g. Lam, 2003; Perks & Jeffery, 2006). The network approach differs from traditional views in several aspects. Instead of being viewed as a matching game between firms endowed with resources or aimed at minimizing transaction costs, network approach view strategic alliances as a formal agreement between partners to invest in a sustained basis relationship (Chen & Chen, 2002). Hence, strategic alliances are solutions to long-term needs, rather than temporary fixes (Chen & Chen, 2002). There is a need to empirically explore service innovation from the angle of network cooperation, and to explain the detailed driving mechanism of SIP from the angle of multiple resources, such as network capacity, relationship quality, knowledge sharing, etc. This paper aims to explore in depth the interacting influence of network competence, relationship quality, and knowledge sharing on SIP. We take up samples in service industries to empirically test the model and hypotheses through a questionnaire survey taken by 243 key coordinators or high-level managers. Statistic tools such as SPSS17.0 and AMOS7.0 are used to analyze models and test hypothesizes. These results will enrich current understanding of the mechanism that how network competence, knowledge sharing and relationship quality affect SIP, contribute to the theory of service science and RBV and provide some managerial implication for company to achieve high SIP
Price competition model in decentralized and centralized supply chains with demand disruption, Themarket demand is often disrupted by some haphazard events, such as the promotion of sale, the raw material shortage, the new tax ortariff policy, machine breakdown, and so on. All the retailers and suppliers in the entire supply chain will be severely affected by these demand disruptions(Qi, Bard& Yu, 2004; Huang, Yu, Wang& Wang, 2006; Xiao &Yu, 2006). Therefore, the issue of supply chain management under demand disruptions has been an active research topic in recent years.This paper focus on the supply chain under demand disruptions when retailers compete. Xiao, Yu, Sheng& Xia(2005) studied the coordination of a supply chain system with one manufacturer and two competing retailers when there are demand disruptions. A price-subsidy ratecontract is considered to coordinate the investments of the competing retailers with sales promotion opportunities and demand disruptions. Xiao, QiandYu(2007) studied the coordination of the supply chain with demand disruptions in the cases of a linear quantity discount schedule or an all-unit quantity discount schedule. Xiao and Qi (2008) investigated how to coordinate a supply chain with one manufacturer and two competing retailers using an all-unit quantity discount or an incremental quantity discount after the production cost of the manufacturer was disrupted. Chen and Xiao (2009) considered two coordination schedules, a linear quantity discount schedule and a Groveswholesale price schedule, to coordinate a supply chain consisting of one manufacturer, one dominant retailer and multiple fringe retailers after demand disruptions.Zhang, Fu, LiandXu(2012) investigated how to coordinate a supply chain with one manufacturer and two retailers underdemand disruptions by revenue-sharing contracts.The above papers mainly focused on the competition and coordination of a supply chain after demand disruptions. These researches all assumed that the demand disruption of a supply chain would occur in the future. However, the occurrence of demand disruption cannot be determined(Xu, Qi, Yu, Zhang& Gao, 2003; Yu &Qi, 2004;Yang, Qi, & Yu, 2005).In this paper, we will consider the demand disruption of a supply chain with a single supplier and two retailers who compete in the market. Our particular interest is the occurrence probability of demand disruption on each retailer. We explore the effects of demand disruption uncertainty on the supply chain.
A study of dynamic econometric relationship between urbanization and service industries growth in china, The process of Chinese urbanization has become one of the major research topics among the domestic scholars and overseas scholars. “The urbanization of China” and “The high-tech of America” have been called two key factors that affect all mankind in the 21st century by Stieglitz. What he has said also include that China’s urbanization will play the lead role in regional economic growth, and will produce most important economic interests (Jiang, 2011).The tertiary industry plays a very important role to promote the economic structure optimization, improve the people’s living quality, and increase chances of employment. According to Petty-Clark’s law, with a corresponding increase of per capita national income, the labors will transfer to the secondary industry and other non-agricultural sectors; what’s more, with the further development of the economy, the labors will transfer to the serviceindustry. So the relationship between the serviceindustries’ development and urbanization has attracted more and morescholars’ attention.
For the purpose of testing the dynamic relationships between urbanization and the growth of the serviceindustry, the paper selects Chinese data the years of 1978 to 2010 for quantitative analysis. Besides, in order to eliminate the influence of population, China measures the level of the tertiary industry by the added value of per capita in it. In this thesis, the level of Chinese serviceindustry is analyzed by the index number of value-added of the serviceindustry. SERV refers to the level of Chinese serviceindustry. The rate of urbanization is the ratio of town population /total population, which is the common indicator to measure the level of urbanization in the world at present and it is showed by URBA. In order to eliminate the heteroscedasticity of the data, the paper uses LN analysis on SERV and URBA, so the final data is expressed by LNURBA and LNSERV
Communication is the exchange of information between people using different communication methods. There are basically four communication styles: active, non-active, conversational and intuitive. Each communication style has its own strengths and weaknesses. In order to better understand yourself and others, you need to understand their communication style. To help you better understand the communication styles here are some questions that can help you understand your communication style better.
Passive-aggression is one communication style that means that your partner does not initiate any contact with you or answers your questions without asking. They are not interested in what you have to say. This type of conversation is very easy to identify because it involves a lot of body language such as faking laughter, grimacing and bringing up a subject they are uncomfortable about. If you suspect that your partner is practicing this communication style ask them directly if they feel comfortable without waiting for a response.
Active- Aggressive communication style is also called vocal and active communicators. Most people who practice this communication style are not really sure why they are able to engage in conversation or get others to listen to them. They have excellent body language and are naturally presentational in their conversation. You will see that most passive communicators use this communication style because they believe it makes them seem more confident and successful than passive-aggressives.
Communicating with the opposite sex is a skill that every person needs to learn. Being able to effectively communicate with the opposite sex can greatly increase your chances of getting them to go home with you on a date. Knowing your partner’s communication style will help you understand their feelings better and be more effective at communicating with them. Here are the four communication styles that every person should know how to communicate with the opposite sex.
The most commonly used communication style is the assertive communication style. All four communication styles that we discussed above are forms of assertive communication style. People who are naturally assertive are very good at communicating with others. They are generally able to get their point across without having to say much.
The fourth communication style that is the most widely used is the self-awareness communicating style. People who are able to master the use of self-awareness are generally very good at communicating with others as well. The best communication styles that a person has the ability to use well are conversational and self-awareness. The main thing about using conversational and self-awareness styles is that you need to understand your audience. If you are unable to understand your audience, then you should not use this style.
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